Functions are the key building blocks for any kind of functionality within Heisenware. They can perform a wide range of actions, including:

  • Fetching and sending data

  • Processing and manipulating data

  • Creating objects

  • Creating and managing database tables

Types of functions

There are different types of functions with different properties and origins.

Static functions

Static functions are standard in Heisenware and don't have any context or state, meaning that each of these functions is independent and does not rely on any previous information.

Object functions

Object functions are the actions an object is able to perform. As they always belong to a specific object, they have context and can include previous information. In order to use an object function, you need to create an object using a create function first.

Custom functions

Custom functions can perform any action and generally behave like either static or object functions. The decisive factor, however, is that these functions can be of any origin. They make it possible to extend the functional scope of the App Builder with highly individualized function logic. To utilize custom functions, they must be called remotely using the code adapter. This implies that they are not inherently part of the App Builder, but rather extend its functionality.

Function components

Basic structure

Typically, a function consists of one or more input arguments, a trigger, and an output. In some cases, for example when using a read function to fetch sensor data, the function does not need an input argument to work properly.

The structure of a low-code function in Heisenware corresponds to the structure of coded software functions. This means that almost any function can be mapped and made available via low-code.


Each function has a status indicator showing its condition. The status indicator, a colored circle, can be found right next to the function handler. The status can be:

  • Green: everything okay

  • Red: an exception or error has occurred

  • Gray: function not available or offline

  • Blue: function execution takes very long to finish (> 2 seconds)

Hover above the indicator to get details about the function's condition.


Built-in functions provide documentation. Hover above the function name to read it.

Functions added via the Code Adapter can automatically provide documentation if the original code has been documented properly.


Extensions extend functions and always refer only to the function that they extend. There are four extensions:

  • Modifier: Allows modifying data with JavaScript and JSONata.

  • Filter: Enables condition-based interruption or continuation of flows using JavaScript.

  • Recorder: Records time series data in InfluxDB.

  • Error Handler: Enables processing of exceptions thrown by a function.

Extending functions

To extend a function:

  1. Click the + icon behind the function output or behind an extension

  2. Select the desired extension

Outputs can have parallel extensions to modify or filter values independently, and extensions can have extensions, too.

Deleting extensions

To delete an extension:

  1. Right-click on an extension.

  2. Select Delete.

Working with functions

Adding functions

To add a function to an app:

  1. Search the function in the functions panel.

  2. Drag and drop it to the desired section within the logic board.

That's it. You can now start to configure and link the function.

Linking functions

Each part of a function, including extensions, can be configured and linked separately, allowing for maximum flexibility and almost limitless data processing options. Linking possibilities include:

  • Backend to frontend.

    • Function to widget and vice versa.

    • Function to page or subpage.

  • Backend to backend.

    • Function to function.

    • Function with same function.

    • Function to file.

To create a link, drag and drop the part of a function onto the item you want to link it to. When linking to the frontend, you first select the frontend widget and then drag and drop the relevant part of the function onto it.

To see existing links, hover above one part of a function. Any existing link to and from this part is indicated by a light shadow within another function. Links to widgets are indicated by a border around the widget.


Flows consist of chained functions where output data or modified data serves as an input argument for subsequent functions. The creation of flows involves linking functions together. Flows are typically triggered by the update or change of output data, automatically initiating a sequence of connected functions. Filters within flows act as switches, altering the flow's direction based on the output data. They can interrupt or continue flows in a specific direction depending on the specified conditions.

Commenting functions

When creating apps with many functions, it can be helpful to comment functions so that it is easier to understand what action a particular function performs. To comment a function:

  1. Right-click on the function name.

  2. Click Comment in the context menu.

  3. Add a comment.

To change a comment, click on the comment and start typing.

Moving functions

To move a function to a new position, drag and drop it with its handle icon. You can only move functions within the same section. The position of a function does not affect its functionality and links.

Deleting functions

To delete a function:

  1. Right-click on the function name.

  2. Click Delete in the context menu.

When deleting a function, its links and configuration will be deleted with it. This action can't be undone.

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